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IMMUNOTHERAPY AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered the most common primary cancer of the liver. HCC accounts for 90% of all liver cancers.HCC is the fifth common
cause of cancer in men and seventh in women worldwide. It is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. It is rare in developed countries and prevalent
in developing ones. Its main causes are viral infections, such as HBV and HCV. Various cell signaling pathways are demonstrated to play a role in its molecular
pathophysiology. Annualy, an approximately of 500,000 deaths per year were reported. Prognosis of HCC is poor because late presentation with large tumours and
also the lack of medical expertise and facilities in high HCC prevalence regions in the world. Recently Metastatic or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis
improved with immunotherapy. Immunotherapt has proven to be effective in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. We review the available drugs and vaccines
tested in the management of Hepatocellular carcinoma. Some has become standard of care, but many are under clinical trials with much anticipated results. In this
paper we provide an overview of the class of Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB), Vaccines, mTOR inhibitors,Proteasome inhibitors,oncolytic virus therapy,cytokines,
STAT3 inhibitors,check point inhibitors, Adoptive T-cell Therapy,A3 Receptor inhibitors, Myc inhibitors and kinase inhibitors in the treatment of Hepatocellular
carcinoma.

Immunotherapy and hepatocellular carcinoma