54. Safety and Efficacy of Peptide Based Vaccines.
A vaccine is a biological preparation which produces immunity from diseases or infections. A vaccine can be administeredby either of the route, orally (through mouth) or through needle injections or by aerosol . Vaccine development process involves induction of inactive organism or live attenuated for antigen specific responses.
With ever increasing development in rDNA technology, it is possible to dichotomize the epitopes (anti-genic determinant) from tumor cell and antibodies usually linked to surface proteins or pathogen, which are generated after the disruption of the pathogens and these proteins stimulate an immune response. Based on this phenomenon peptide vaccine can be developed and used as vaccine. There are some examples of peptide vaccine like ALVAC-CEA, TA-NIC, HPV, NicVAX-TA-CD.
Vaccines have been used very effectively from several decades for reducing mortality and morbidity rate due to infectious diseases. The main reason of stress for vaccines, such as those that involve whole organisms or large proteins, and they appear to be the addition of unnecessary antigenic load, that is not contributed to protective immune responses. The peptide vaccine is an attractive alternative strategy, and this is used in isolation, these often weakly possess the ability to elicit an immune response and require particulate carriers for delivery named adjuvant.
This article deals with the use of peptide based vaccine and their pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Additionally, it also discussed the whole pharmacological activity in regards to new development and challenges in peptide based vaccine therapy.
Peptide vaccines for cancer offer the promise of inducing T cells reactive to well-characterized tumor antigens and also enabling assessment of vaccination effect, by monitoring antigen- specific T cell responses. Cancer cells express peptide antigens recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) .
Mechanism of action of Peptide based vaccine include (i) the peptide ties to antigen-displaying cells, human leukocyte antigens (HLA) or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the target cell surface; (ii) T-cell receptors (TCR) perceive the HLA-peptide buildings; and (iii) antigen-particular cytotoxic T-cells (particular CTL) are instigated . Development in vaccination began especially 30 years back after the investigations and showing in creature models and later on in patients and afterward it could be conceivable to create antitumor insusceptible reactions. Peptides vaccines were as of late indicated to instigate a high recurrence of resistant reactions in patients that were joined by clinical viability.
Key words:Peptide Vaccine; Epitope; Adjuvants; Human Leukocyte Antigen; Immunity; Pharmacodynamics; Pharmacokinetic, Amino Acids; Monomers.